Tag Archives PAM4

With the advent of 400G Ethernet, it has become critically important to fully understand and validate Forward Error Correction (FEC) logic and the related software and firmware. 400G Ethernet uses PAM-4 signalling optically and electrically. Because of the susceptibility to the impact of noise, distortion, and other disturbances, most links will run with a raw error […]

With the emergence of 400G Ethernet we have seen the wide deployment of higher order modulation in client interfaces.  We have moved from the mature NRZ of 100G and below to PAM-4 modulation both optically and electrically. This has allowed 400G links to be deployed for reaches of 10km. But what about applications like data […]

This is the first in a series of blog posts that offer technical and industry insights from Dr. Paul Brooks, who has been involved in R&D and product management for high speed electronic and photonic test equipment for over 20 years. Dr. Brooks holds several patents related to measurement in high speed test equipment and […]

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